ALL ABOUT MENSTRUATION
The Natural Blood of Women
Reading Qur’aan during menses
Is it permissible to read Quran while a women is having mensus (periods)?
Praise be to Allaah.
This is one of the issues on which the scholars, may Allaah have mercy on them, differed.
The majority of fuqahaa’ say that it is haraam for a woman to recite Qur’aan during her period, until she is taahir (pure) again. The only exceptions they make is in the case of dhikr (remembrance of Allaah) and phrases that are not intended as tilaawah (recitation), such as saying “Bismillaahi’r-Rahmaani’r-Raheem” or “Innaa Lillaahi wa innaa ilayhi raaji’oon”, or other phrases from the Qur’aan which are repeated as general du’aa’s.
They base their evidence for forbidding menstruating women to recite Qur’aan on several things, including the following:
Menstruation is seen as coming under the rulings that apply to one who is junub (in a state of impurity following sexual intercourse), because both states require ghusl. This is based on the hadeeth narrated by ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib (may Allaah be pleased with him), according to which the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to teach the Qur’aan and he never prevented anyone from learning it except those who were in a state of janaabah (impurity).” (Reported by Abu Dawood, 1/281; al-Tirmidhi, 146; al-Nisaa’i, 1/144; Ibn Maajah, 1/207; Ahmad, 1/84; Ibn Khuzaymah [??], 1/104. Al-Tirmidhi said: a saheeh hasan hadeeth. Al-Haafiz ibn Hajar said: the truth is that it is the type of hasan hadeeth that could be used as evidence).
The hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with them both), according to which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The menstruating woman and the one who is in a state of impurity (janaabah) should not recite anything of the Qur’aan.” (Reported by al-Tirmidhi, 131; Ibn Maajah, 595; al-Daaraqutni (1/117); al-Bayhaqi, 1/89. This is a da’eef hadeeth, because it was reported by Ismaa’eel ibn ‘Ayyaash from the Hijaazis, and his reports from them are da’eef as is well known to those who are conversant with the study of hadeeth. Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said (21/460): it is a da’eef hadeeth by the unanimous agreement of the scholars of hadeeth. See Nasb al-Raayah, 1/195; al-Talkhees al-Habeer, 1/183).
Some scholars say that it is permitted for a menstruating woman to recite Qur’aan. This is the opinion of Maalik, and one opinion narrated from Ahmad, which Ibn Taymiyah preferred and which al-Shawkaani believed to be correct. The scholars based the following points on this opinion:
The principle is that things are allowed and permitted unless there is evidence to the contrary. There is no such evidence to say that a menstruating woman is not allowed to recite Qur’aan. Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said: “There is no clear, saheeh text to indicate that a menstruating woman is forbidden to recite Qur’aan… It is known that women used to menstruate at the time of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and he did not forbid them to recite Qur’aan, or to remember Allaah (dhikr) and offer du’aa’.”
Allaah, may He be glorified and exalted, commands (Muslims) to recite Qur’aan. He praises the one who does so, and promises him (or her) a great reward. No one is excluded from this except the one concerning whom there is solid evidence (daleel), and there is no such evidence in the case of menstruating women, as stated above.
The analogy between the menstruating woman and the one who is in a state of janaabah is made despite the fact that there are differences between them. The one who is in a state of janaabah has the option of removing the “barrier” by making ghusl, unlike the menstruating woman. A woman’s period usually lasts for some length of time, whereas the person who is in a state of janaabah is required to do ghusl when the time for prayer comes.
Preventing a menstruating woman from reciting Qur’aan deprives her of the chance to earn reward, and it may make her forget something of the Qur’aan, or she may need to recite it for the purposes of teaching or learning.
From the above, it is clear that the evidence of those who allow a menstruating woman to recite Qur’aan is stronger. If a woman wants to err on the side of caution, she can limit her recitation to the passages which she is afraid of forgetting.
It is very important to note that what we have been discussing here is restricted to what a menstruating woman recites from memory. When it comes to reading from the Mus-haf (the Arabic text itself), a different rule applies. The correct view of the scholars is that it is forbidden to touch the mus-haf when one is in any kind of state of impurity, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “… which none can touch except the purified.” [al-Waaqi’ah 56:79]. In a letter to ‘Amr ibn Hazm, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) told the people of Yemen : “No one should touch the Qur’aan except one who is taahir (pure).” (Reported by Maalik, 1/199; al-Nisaa’i, 8/57; Ibn Hibbaan, 793; al-Bayhaqi, 1/87. Al-Haafiz ibn Hajar said: A group of scholars classed this hadeeth as saheeh because it is so well known. Al-Shaafi’i said: It is proven by them that it was a letter sent by the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr said: “This letter is famous among the scholars of seerah, and is so well known among the scholars that it does not need an isnaad. It is like tawaatur because the people accepted and recognized it. Shaykh al-Albani said that its is saheeh. Al-Talkhees al-Habeer, 4/17. See also: Nasb al-Raayah, 1/196; Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel, 1/158).
(Haashiyat Ibn ‘Aabideen, 1/159; al-Majmoo’, 1/356; Kashshaaf al-Qinaa’, 1/147; al-Mughni, 3/461; Nayl al-Awtaar, 1/226; Majmoo’ al-Fataawaa, 21/460; al-Sharh al-Mumti’ li’l-Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, 1/291)
And Allaah knows best.
Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid
The Natural Blood of Women
Recitation of the Quran During Menses and Post Natal Bleeding
First of all, the Shariah deals with the sexually defiled and menstruating women in very different matters and ways. There are lots of differences between them:
1. The sexually defiled can at any time he wishes remove that state. He/she can make ghusl if there is no water then tayammum.
2. Menstruating woman can not do such, she is in that state for as long as Allah (SWT) wills, until her period comes to an end.
Recitiation of the Quran by menstruating and post-partum bleeding women has been made permissible by the Malikis, Shafis, Hanbalis, Abu Hanifa and a number of other scholars. There proof being:
1.Hadith of Bukhari and Muslim concerning the Eid prayer. Narrated Umm ‘Atiya (RA):
"I heard Allah’s Messenger (SAW) that the unmarried virgins and the mature girls and the menstruating women should come out and participate in the good deeds as well as invocations of faithful believers but the menstruating women should keep away from the Musalla - praying place [Salat (prayers)]. Someone asked (Umm ‘Atiya) (surprisingly), "Do you say the menstruating women?" She replied, "Doesn’t a menstruating woman attend ‘Arafat (Hajj) and such and such (other deeds)?"
Takbeer is a type of remembrance of Allah (SWT) and supplication is not any different from dhikr.
2. Hadith of Bukhari regarding Aisha (RA) when she got her menses on the way to Mecca . Narrated ‘Aisha (RA):
"We set out with the sole intention of performing Hajj and when we reached Sarif, (11 k.m. from Makka) I got my menses. Allah’s Messenger (SAW) came to me while I was weeping. He said "What is the matter with you? Have you got your menses? I replied, "Yes." He said, "This is a thing Allah (SWT) has ordained for the daughters of Adam. So do what all the pilgrims do with the exception of Tawaf (Circumambulation) round the Ka’bah." ‘Aisha (RA), added, "Allah’s Messenger (SAW) sacrificed cows on behalf of his wives."
Pilgrims make dhikr and read Quran. There was no objection from the Prophet (SAW) and he (SAW) actually "told" Aisha (RA) to do so.
3. Another reason being hardship. A woman might forget what she memorized.
So therefore if there is no text forbidding such an act, one can not conclude that the act is not allowable. The burden of proof is on those who claim that such women can not recite the Quran, and they offer no clear or direct proof.
There is no harm whatsoever in a menstruating woman or post-partum bleeding woman reciting the Quran from their memory without actually touching the Quran.
Touching The Quran During Menstruation and Post-Partum Bleeding
The most often quoted evidences, is an Ayat from the Quran:
"…none can touch but those who are pure…" (Al-Waqi’a 56:79)
A common mistake, is people taking verses and applying it to a particular Fiqh (point). Yet when you study the verse in more detail you will find, in fact, it is not related to the point whatsoever.
"That (this) is indeed an honorable recital (the Noble Quran). In a Book well-guarded (with Allah in the heaven i.e. Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz). Which (that Book with Allah) none can touch but those who are pure from sins (i.e. the angels). A Revelation (this Quran) from the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists). (Al-Waqi’a 56:77-80)
Put into context this Ayat refers to "…a Book well-guarded," and this means a Book with Allah (SWT). It is not talking about the physical Quran we have in our presence here.
Ibn Abbas (RA) and others, along with the early scholars, agree that this verse is not talking about the Quran that we have in our hands. A Book well-guarded refers to something that is hidden (Maknoon). It is not referring to the Quran we have in our presence. Early scholars all agree to this conclusion.
"...In a Book well-guarded (with Allah in the heaven i.e. Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz)."
According to the Tafsir of Tabari and Kathir and also according to Jamal al-deen al-Qasami, this Ayat is not in reference to humans having to be free from impurities.
"Which (that Book with Allah) none can touch but those who are pure from sins (i.e. the angels)." (Al-Waqi’a 56:79)
This verse in reference to the Angels and not mankind. In a Hadith narrated by Abu Hurairah (RA), the Prophet (SAW) states, "a believer never becomes impure."
"The Prophet (SAW) came across me in one of the streets of Medina and at that time I was Janab. So I slipped away from him and went to take a bath. On my return the Prophet said, "O Abu Hurairah! Where have you been?" I replied, "I was Janab, so I disliked to sit in your company." The Prophet said, "Subhan Allah! A believer never becomes impure." (Sahih Bukhari)
There are four possible meanings of Taher (pure) in this Hadith:
1. specifically it means "pure."
2. free from major impurity where it is necessary to make ghusl.
3. free from minor impurity where it is necessary to make wudu.
4. no impurities on physical body
What does Taher mean in this Hadith? How we determine what it means is we look at other evidences that relate.
1. A letter sent to the Emperor of Rome by the Prophet (SAW). The Prophet (SAW) had good reason to believe that the Emperor would touch it. Some will argue that a piece of paper is not Quran so this may not be such a strong argument.
2. In Sahih Muslim the Hadith about when Aisha (RA) was sent, by The Prophet (SAW), to go into the Masjid to get a mat. The Prophet (SAW) said to Aisha (RA), "Menstruation is not in your hands." A woman’s touch can not be considered impure even while on menses.
"The Messenger of Allah (SAW) said to me: Get me the mat from the mosque. I said: I am menstruating. Upon this he remarked: 'Your menstruation is not in your hands.'" (Sahih Muslim)
1. Hadith that states, "A believer does not become impure." A clear text by The Prophet (SAW). A believer is considered Taher under ALL circumstances. Therefore, believer in this Hadith means Taher. The only one who should touch the Quran is a believer (i.e. A Muslim).
2. Take the Ayat: "None can touch but those who are pure (Taher)." There is no record whatsoever of Prophet (SAW) telling believers not to touch Qu’ran.
Therefore, Taher means believer (Muslim).
There is NO evidence whatsoever that says that a woman who is on her period or a woman who is having post-natal bleeding that she can not touch the Quran. This is a minority opinion, however it is the strongest opinion.
A WOMAN WHO IS ON HER PERIOD MAY RECITE THE QURAN AND A WOMAN WHO IS ON HER PERIOD MAY EVEN TOUCH THE QURAN AND READ IT DIRECTLY FROM A MUSAF (ARABIC). THIS IS A MINORITY OPINION YET IT IS THE STRONGEST OPINION.
There is no evidence to the contrary and the burden of evidence is upon those who say that such women are not allowed to touch or recite the Quran.
The scholars who say the Quran is forbidden to touch in the state of menses and post-partum bleeding, quote a weak Hadith which has in it’s chain a person declared a liar by the scholars of Hadith.
"Neither the menstruating woman nor the sexually defiled person is to recite anything from the Qu’ran."
Information from "Fiqh Rulings on Women’s Issues" a lecture
by Jamaal Al-Din Zarabozo
Reading the Quran During Menses
There is no prohibition from the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) prohibiting a woman from reading the Quran in the state of her menses.
There is no prohibition. The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) did not prohibit it. All we have is the statement of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) that he used to recite the Quran under all conditions except when he was in a state of Janaba that is after having sexual intercourse when it was necessary for him to take a bath.
This is the basis, this is the foundation, from which all of these different opinions are derived. So, some scholars made a comparison between this state of Janaba with that of menses.
But of course, they are not the same because the state of Janaba you can remove by merely washing yourself. Taking a bath your state is over. Now you can now read the Quran. Whereas in the state of menses, a woman can not just wash herself then go and read. She is still in that state of menses.
If we are dealing now with the translation of the Quran, translations of the meanings of the Quran, then all this is of NO importance at all because translations of the Quran are not considered to be Quran. So no matter what state you are in, you can read it, you can pick it up, you can touch it, there is no problem at all because the Quran that we have, even if the Arabic text is there too, is still not considered Quran.
The general position which is held in determining what is considered Quran and what is not, is that whenever the words of other than Allah (SWT), in a given text, is more than the words of Allah (SWT), that text is no longer considered Quran because Quran refers to a single verse if we take a verse of Quran by itself this is called Quran also. But if there comes along with this verse, other words, you have given an explanation of it which is more than what constitutes the verse, then this is no longer considered Quran.
This is the juice from the fact, that Prophet Muhammad (SAW) sent messages to the kings of Bizantium and Persia , etc. which had verses of Quran in it. He (SAW) knew full well that these people were going to be in a state of Janaba, that they were kafr and that they would probably tear it up, maybe step on it or whatever.
So we know that it is permissible that once the words of Allah (SWT) are drowned out by the words of other than Allah (SWT), which is the case of the translations of the Quran, then in such case this is not considered to be Quran and as such it is perfectly allowable for a woman to read it under any state.
Information from "Duties of a Muslim Husband" a lecture
by Shaikh Abu-Ameenah Bilal Phillips
It is Permissible for a Menstruating Woman to Recite the Quran and Books of Supplications?
There is no harm in a menstruating or post-partum bleeding woman reading the books of supplications that are written for the rites of the pilgrimage. In fact, there in nothing wrong with her reciting the Quran according to the correct opinion. There in no authentic, clear text prohibiting a menstruating or post-partum bleeding woman from reciting the Quran. The thing that is narrated is concerned with the sexually defiled person only, as such should not recite the Quran while he is sexually defiled. This is based on the Hadith of Ali (RS). As for the menstruating or post-partum bleeding woman, there is the Hadith of Ibn Umar (RS) which states:
"Neither the menstruating woman nor the sexually defiled person is to recite anything from the Quran."
However, this is a weak Hadith. This is because it is from the narration’s of Ismail ibn Iyyash on the authority of people from the Hijaz and he is weak when he narrated from them.
However, she may recited from her memory without touching the Quran. As for the sexually defiled person, he/she may not ever recite the Quran from memory or touch the mushaf until he/she makes ghusl.
The difference between the two is that amount of time one is sexually defiled is very short as he may make ghusl as soon as he has done the act with his spouse. The amount of time is not long and he is in control of its length as he may make ghusl whenever he wishes. Even if he cannot find water, he can make tayammum and pray or recite the Quran.
However, the menstruating or post-partum bleeding woman does not have control over their lengths, such control is in the hands of Allah (SWT). Menstruation and post-partum bleeding take days. Therefore, it is allowed for them to recite the Quran so that they do not forget what they have memorized and so they will not lose merits of reciting it. It is also so they may learn the laws of the Shariah from the Book of Allah (SWT).
Therefore, it is even more so permissible for her to read the books of supplications that have verses and Hadith intermixed with them. This is the correct view and is the correct opinion of the scholars - may Allah (SWT) have mercy on them - on that point. - Shaikh ibn Baz (ra)
Menstruation & Post-Partum Bleeding In Relation To The Musalla (Praying Place & Masjid)
Getting Menses While in the Masjid
If a woman is not able to depart the masjid by herself, then there is no harm in what she does. However, if a woman is able to leave by herself, it is obligatory upon her to exit as quickly as possible. This is because the menstruating woman, post-partum bleeding woman and sexually defiled person is not allowed to sit in the masjid. - Jamaal Al-Din Zarabozo
These fatawas are from Islamic Fatawa Regarding Women
Compiled by Muhammad bin Abdul-Aziz Al-Musnad
Most women who have infertility issues also suffer from abnormal menstrual flows. While Muslim women generally know the does and don'ts of a normal menstrual flow, many are at a loss of what to do during an abnormal menstrual cycle. Our purpose here is not to discuss the normal flows or the Islamic rules regarding them, but to address those rules related to abnormal flows as well as post natal bleeding and bleeding after a miscarriage, which are also commonly misunderstood amongst Muslim women.
MENSTRUATION IN QURAN
The Qur'an addresses menstruation on three occasions, two of which don't concern us in this discussion. The one aya, which is small but holds a lot of detail is in Al Baqarah aya 222 which can be translated as
They ask you concerning menstruation (mahid) Say: it is a hurt (adha)
Therefore keep away from them during their menstruation and go
Not unto them until they have become clean (Tahara)
And when they have cleansed (Tatahhara) then go into
Them as Allah has ordained for you
The implication of this ayat is in regards to the sexual relations between man and women during the menstrual cycle. However, we learn several other things from this aya that applies to women and menstruation in regards to other aspects of Islam.
Adha, a hurt, injury or ailment, is the word that Allah uses to describe the menstruation of a woman.
Any woman can relate to the hurt, which comes in the forms of abdominal, cramps, backache, inner thigh pain, headaches, nausea and many other symptoms associated with the menstrual flow. The severity of which will differ from women to women, however women suffering from Endometriosis will have increased abdominal cramps.
Tahara, cleansing or purity, Allah points out the fact that during the time of the menstrual flow women are impure. Not in the sense that everything related to her body is impure, for the menstrual cycle is not in the hands of a woman.
Aisha reported: The Prophet said to me "Bring the mat for me
From the mosque." I said: "I have got menses."
He said: "Your menstruation is not in your hand"
But impurity in the sense that the menstrual flow is a form of cleansing. During the month the uterine lining will thicken in the hopes of implantation. When this does not happen the uterine lining will shed, a form of cleansing that the body requires in order to prepare for the next month of anticipated pregnancy.
A medically defined normal menstrual flow is considered to be one that occurs every month when a woman is not pregnant, for up to seven days, and not associated with unusual amounts of pain. However the Muslim scholars differ as to the minimum and maximum days of menstrual flow in order for it to be legally defined as a menstrual flow. The Hanafis allow three days minimum and ten days maximum, Hanbalis and Shafi'is allow for a one day minimum and maximum of fifteen days and according to the Malikis there is no minimum set time but the maximum is set at fifteen days also. However women are not programmed like a computer, the duration of their own normal flow may differ from woman to woman.
There are two forms of abnormal flows, which concern us here, the prolonged flow and the bleeding between menstrual cycles. Both of which are not subject to the same rules that a normal flow is in shariah.
This is something which Muhammad pbuh addressed with the women of his time
Aisha reported that Fatimah, the daughter of Abu Hubaish
Came to the Prophet and said: "O Messenger of Allah,
I am a woman who has a constant discharge of
Blood so I am not purified. Shall I give up prayer?"
He said: "No, that is a vein and not menses,
And when your menses comes, give up your prayer;
And when the time elapses, wash the blood from yourself and
Umm Salamah reported that a woman used to discharge
Blood at the time of the Prophet. Umm Salamah asked
Decision of the Prophet for her. He said: "Let her look
To the number of nights and days in a month which she
Used to have menses before that which attacked her,
And let her give up prayer proportionate to that in a
Month. When she finishes that, let her take bath
And let her tie a cloth over her private part and then let
Her say prayer
<Muwatta, Abu Dawud>
From here we see that Muhammad pbuh referred to this abnormal flow as not of the regular cycle, rather from a vein. While the vein should not be taken in a literal sense we should understand it that the bleeding comes from a different source than a normal menstrual flow, which consists of the shedding of the uterine lining.
Menorrhagia, the medical term for prolonged blood flows or abnormal amount of blood flow can have several causes. What is an abnormal amount of blood? There is a charting system that will help you find out. Some causes for prolonged blood flow include uterine fibroid tumors, polyps, hormonal imbalances, thyroid level imbalance, lupus and other medical conditions including cancer. All women should refer to their doctors if they have prolonged blood flows or large quantity of bleeding.
We also learn from these ahadith that the rules that are applicable to women during their normal cycle are not applicable to women during a prolonged flow. Under a normal menstrual flow a woman would not be permitted to make formalized salah, to fast during Ramadhan, although she would have to make up for days missed. She would also be prohibited from staying in the mosque, or sitting on the musallah. However if it is Eid all women are to come out for this celebration menstrual flow or not. Sexual intercourse is prohibited, however touching, kissing and other forms of foreplay are not prohibited. She also would not make tawaf around the Kabah during Hajj as well as touching the Arabic script of Quran.
All Sunni madhahib do agree that during an abnormal flow none of the above things are prohibited for her. She is to pray, fast, can stay in the mosque, make tawaf around the Kabah, touch the Quran and have sexual intercourse. The only requirement is that she makes ghusl as she normally would do after a menstrual flow. When she makes salah she would also make wudu before every prayer, however a full ghusl for every prayer is not mandated but can be the choice of the woman as we have seen in the above hadith.
BLEEDING INBETWEEN CYCLES
This is another form of abnormal bleeding that has been addressed by Muhammad pbuh as reported:
Narrated Aisha one of the wives of the Messenger of
Allah joined him in I'tikaf and she noticed
Blood and yellowish discharge (from her
Private parts) and put a dish under
Her when she prayed
Narrated Aisha: Umm Habiba got bleeding
In-between the periods for seven years. She asked
Allah's Messenger about it. He ordered her to
Take a bath and that it was from a blood
Vessel. So she used to take a bath
Before every prayer
Again we see that the same legal rulings which apply to a prolonged flow of bleeding to that of the bleeding in-between a normal cycle. So what are some of the causes for such bleeding?
Metrorrhagia, the medical term for bleeding between cycles, has several causes. Some of which are hormonal fluctuations, low thyroid levels, vaginal infections, injury to the vagina, some forms of cancer, certain medications, stress, or missing a birth control pill. Whenever a woman experiences bleeding in-between cycles from unknown causes it is best to call the doctor. You should keep track of how many pads you use; this can help determine if the blood flow is abnormally heavy. Also staying away from aspirin can help since it prolongs bleeding.
The same Muslim scholar deductions related to the prolonged flow would also relate to the flow in-between cycles. So a woman can resume all normal activities which she would if she were not menstruating.
POST NATAL BLEEDING (NIFAS)
One of the most commonly misunderstood things about postnatal bleeding is that many women think that they should refrain from all things for a total of forty days. They understand this to be the scholarly deduction if they are bleeding or not. However according to the scholarly deductions there are set maximum days just as we say in the menstrual flow. In the opinion of the Hanafis and Hanbalis the maximum amount of time is forty days, anything beyond this is not considered a normal flow of nifas and would be subject to different rules. The Shafi'is and Malikis set a maximum amount of time of sixty days. This however does not mean that if a woman's flow stops before the forty days she is to continue in a state of "impurity" rather she is to make ghusl and resume her Islamic duties.
Anas reported that Allah's Messenger had prescribed
Forty days for a woman in the state of nifas except
That she feels purified before this (period)
<Ibn Majah graded hasan>
Again there is no set programming for women during these times, each women will differ as to her flow. Some bleed for a longer amount of time, some having a heavier flow, and some experiencing different color of the discharge. If a woman is unsure as to any flow she is having be it menstrual or postnatal she should discuss this with her doctor. Generally most doctors will say about six weeks of postnatal bleeding is normal and if bleeding occurs after that than a cause should be found, depending on the blood flow.
BLEEDING AFTER A MISCARRIAGE
When a woman miscarries she may experience bleeding during and after. The length of time will differ from each women but generally a woman will bleed for a few days a week or on and off for a few weeks. Concern should be noted if the bleeding is more than a normal menstrual flow, or when you soak a pad within an hour. There are different reasons why some women may flow heavier than others in these times such as location of implantation in the uterus, how deep embryo had implanted, condition of the uterine lining, or muscle tone of the uterus. It could also be due to ones own nutrients, such as iron, calcium and electrolytes. There are many factors, however if you become concerned over the flow of blood or amount refer to your doctor.
All the rules concerning a menstrual flow would also apply to women who bleed after miscarriage. Such as not praying, fasting, having sexual intercourse, tawaf around the Kabah.
A woman with sporadic bleeding after a miscarriage and it is determined to be normal should resume her duties when she has no flow. But when the flow comes again should ceases in her duties. If the flow were determined to be of another nature than the rules regarding abnormal blood flow would also apply.