The virtues of Jumu'ah (Friday) prayer

 
The Excellence of Friday Prayer
Allah, the Exalted, says:
"Then when the (Jumu`ah) Salah is ended, you may disperse through the land, and seek the Bounty of Allah (by working), and remember Allah much: that you may be successful.'' (62:10)
1147. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "The best day on which the sun has  risen is Friday. On that day Adam was created, he was admitted to Jannah, and he was expelled therefrom.''
[Muslim].
Commentary: This Hadith tells us of the excellence of Jumu`ah. Many achievements were made on this day which also go to prove its excellent position in Islam.
1148. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "If anyone performs Wudu' properly, then comes to the Friday prayer, listens to the Khutbah (religious talk) attentively and keeps silent, his (minor) sins between that Friday and the following Friday will be forgiven, with the addition of three more days; but he who touches pebbles has caused an interruption. ''
[Muslim].
Commentary:
1. "If anyone performs ablution properly'' means does it in accordance with the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH), that is to say, one should not exceed the prescribed limits, nor should one use water extravagantly. One should wash every organ of the body involved in "Wudu'', at the most for three times. One should neither use water in excess of the need nor leave any of the organs unwashed or partly washed in Wudu'. This Hadith also makes it evident that it is more meritorious to perform Wudu' at home.
2.Sins of ten days are pardoned because every virtue has at least ten-times reward. Here sins means minor sins as the major ones are not forgiven without sincere repentance nor are Huquq-ul-`Ibad i.e., (rights of people) forgiven without compensation.
3.One should listen to the Khutbah quietly with full attention. One must avoid toying with anything (such as straws, one's watch, etc.) as this is a useless exercise, which will doubtlessly deprive one of the Friday reward.
1149. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him)reported: The Prophet (PBUH) said, "The five daily (prescribed) Salat, and Friday (prayer) to the next Friday (prayer), and the fasting of Ramadan to the next Ramadan, is expiation of the sins committed in between them, so long as major sins are avoided.''
[Muslim].
Commentary: This Hadith makes it clear that the good actions mentioned in it are means of forgiveness of sins but only if one saves oneself from major sins. Thus, it is abundantly clear that the sins which are pardoned through these good actions are minor sins. Major sins will not be forgiven by means of Salat and Saum (fasting). Sincere repentance for them is indispensable.
1150. Ibn `Umar and Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: We heard the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) saying (while delivering Khutbah on his wooden pulpit), "Either some people (i.e., hypocrites) stop neglecting the Friday prayers, or Allah will seal their hearts and they will be among the heedless.''
[Muslim].
Commentary: "They will be among the heedless'' means those who will become utterly unmindful of the remembrance of Allah and His Orders. Such people are Munafiqun (hypocrites), whose abode will be Hell. It means that negligence of Jumu`ah for a long time is such a serious offence that it can even seal a man's heart, which finishes all hopes and chances of one's improvement.
1151. Ibn `Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "When one of you intends to come for the Friday prayer, he should take a bath.''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
1152. Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "Taking a bath (before coming to Friday prayers) is obligatory on every adult.''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: On the strength of this Hadith, some `Ulama' have regarded bath for Salat-ul-Jumu`ah as Wajib (obligatory), and those who differ from this view, like Imam An-Nawawi, to resort the interpretation of Wajib made here. Whether Ghusl is Wajib or desirable, it applies to women as well, if they like to go to the mosque for Salat-ul-Jumu`ah. The manner of taking a bath for the Friday prayer is similar to the manner of performing Ghusl after sexual intercourse.
1153. Samurah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "It suffices to perform Wudu' properly for the Friday prayer; but it is better to take a bath.''
[Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi].
Commentary: This Hadith supports the contention of those who do not hold the Ghusl obligatory for two reasons. Firstly, it allows one to perform Wudu'. In fact, it has been regarded good. Secondly, the Ghusl has been regarded better, from which one can safely infer the permission to leave it. In any case, there is no doubt about its being Masnun (Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH)) and Mustahabb (desirable). The time of the Ghusl is from the daybreak to the time of Salat-ul-Jumu`ah.
1154. Salman (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "If a man takes bath on Friday, (or) purifies himself as much as he can with Wudu', oils his hair, applies whatever perfume available in his house, sets forth for the mosque, does not separate two people (to make a seat for himself), performs Salat what is prescribed for him, remains silent when the Imam speaks, his (minor) sins between that Friday and the following Friday will be forgiven.''
[Al-Bukhari].
Commentary: This Hadith stresses the following four points:
1.The need to purify oneself as much as possible on Jumu`ah. One must use hair oil and perfume so that others do not feel any irritation on the bad smell which may rise from one's clothes.
2.One is advised to go for Salat-ul-Jumu`ah early so that he has not to jump over the shoulders of others, nor has to sit tightly between two persons. If a person goes to the mosque late, then he should occupy the available seat and observe full manners.
3.One should perform Nawafil after reaching the mosque.
4.One should listen to the Khutbah quietly. A person who observes all the manners mentioned in this Hadith will receives full benefits of Salat-ul-Jumu`ah.
1155. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "He who takes a bath on Friday, like the bath for ceremonial purity, and then goes (to the mosque), he is like one who offers a camel as a sacrifice to seek the Pleasure of Allah; and he who comes at the second hour is like one who offers a cow to win the Pleasure of Allah; and he who comes at the third hour is like one who offers a ram with horns (in sacrifice); and he who comes at the fourth hour is like one who offers a hen; and he who comes at the fifth hour is like one who offers an egg. And when the Imam ascends the pulpit, the angels (who write the names of those who come to the mosque before the coming of the Imam) close (their record) in order to listen to the Khutbah.''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: This Hadith mentions the merits of going early for Salat-ul-Jumu`ah and narrates inducements provided for it. The earlier a person goes for it, the greater his reward will be. In fact, the reward for it goes on diminishing in proportion to the delay that he makes in reaching the mosque for this purpose so much so that he who reaches the Masjid after the Khutbah, will be totally deprived of the benefits which go with it because his name does not figure in the register which shows men of merits.
Salat-ul-Jumu`ah is also attended by angels. This fact shows the eminence for the Khutbah of Salat-ul-Jumu`ah and the Salat itself.
The Ghusl performed on Jumu`ah should be done with the same meticulous care as is done in Ghusl Janabah (post-coition bath).
1156. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said while talking about the merits of Friday, "There is a time on Friday at which a Muslim, while he (or she) is performing Salat and is supplicating, will be granted whatever he (or she) is supplicating for.'' And he (PBUH) pointed with his hand to indicate that this period of time is very short.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: This Hadith mentions another distinction of Jumu`ah, namely a moment in which every prayer that a person then makes is granted with the condition that what one is asking for is good and lawful. It is a very short moment and its time has also not been revealed. For this reason one should remember Allah frequently and pray to Him on Jumu`ah so that one attains that moment when prayers are answered. Prayers can also be answered outside Salat if one happens to be supplicating at the specified moment.
1157. Abu Burdah bin Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: `Abdullah bin `Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) said to me: "Did you hear your father narrating something from the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) about the special moment during Friday?'' I said: "Yes, I heard him report from the Messenger of Allah (PBUH): `It occurs between the time when the Imam sits down (on the pulpit after the first Khutbah) and the time Salat is over.'''
[Muslim].
Commentary: There is a difference of opinion among `Ulama' in respect of this moment. Some `Ulama' prefer the version given in this Hadith, that is, this moment could be any time in the period from the time the Imam sits down after the first Khutbah and the end of Salat-ul-Jumu`ah. But Sheikh Al-Albani has regarded this Hadith as "Mauquf'' (its chain of narrators does not reach up to the Prophet (PBUH)) (See Riyadh-us-Saliheen edited by Sheikh Al-Albani). For this reason other `Ulama' have inclined to a Marfu` Hadith (i.e., its chain of narrators reaches up to the Prophet (PBUH)) and urged to find this moment in the last hour of `Asr before the Maghrib.
1158. Aus bin Aus (May Allah be pleased with him)reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "Among the best of your days is Friday. On that day pray to Allah to exalt my mention frequently, for your such supplications are presented to me.''
[Abu Dawud].
Commentary: This Hadith brings forth the following three points:
1.The auspiciousness of time further enhances the merits of virtuous deeds, as is evident from the stress on reciting more and more salutation on the Prophet (PBUH) on Friday.
2.On Jumu`ah, salutation is presented to the Prophet (PBUH). This statement goes to prove that he does not hear salutation of anyone directly, either from near or from far. There is a famous Hadith which says that he hears it from near but this is not "Sahih'' technically. Therefore, the truth of the matter is that he does not hear it directly. It is the angels who convey it to him.
3.The most well-worded  is "Ibrahimi salutation'' because the Prophet (PBUH) himself taught it to his Companions. The salutation is: Allahumma salli `ala Muhammadin wa `ala ali Muhammadin, kama sallaita `ala Ibrahima, wa `ala ali Ibrahima, innaka Hamidun Majeed. Allahumma barik `ala Muhammadin wa `ala ali Muhammadin, kama barakta `ala Ibrahima, wa `ala ali Ibrahima, innaka Hamidun Majeed.  
Friday (Jumu'ah) is the best day of the week.
Abu Lubanah al-Badri relates that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "The most prominent of the days [lit. the leader of the days] is the day of Jumu'ah and the most honored in Allah's sight, and it is more honored in Allah's sight than the day of breaking the fast or the day of sacrifice. It has five significant merits: Allah created Adam on this day; on this day Allah sent Adam down to the earth; on this day, Allah caused Adam to die; on this day, there is a time during which if anyone asks anything of Allah it will be granted to him unless he asks for something which is forbidden; and on this day, the Hour will be established. There are no angels close to Allah or sky or earth or wind or mountain or sea who are not worried concerning the day of Jumu'ah." related by Ahmad and Ibn Majah. Al-Iraqi says its chain is hasan.
One should do one's best to make supplications during the last moments (or hours) of Jumu'ah.
Abu Sa'id and Abu Hurairah report that the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "On Jumu'ah there is a time that if a believing slave asks Allah during it for some good, [Allah will definitely] give it to him, and that time is after the 'asr salah." This is related by Ahmad. Al-'Iraqi calls it sahih.
Jabir reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "The day of Jumu'ah has twelve hours, and during one of the hours, you will not find a Muslim slave [of Allah] asking Allah for something, but that He will give it to him. Seek it in the last hour after the 'Asr salah." related by anNasa'i, Abu Dawud, and by al-Hakim in al-Mustadrak, and he calls it sahih according to Muslim's criteria. Ibn Hajar says that its chain is hasan.
Ahmad ibn Hanbal says: "Most of the hadith concerning the hour in which the supplication is always responded to state the hour to be after the 'asr prayer, and some state it to be after the sun passes the meridian."
Aus ibn Aus reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "The most virtuous of your days is Jumu'ah. On that day, Adam was created and on that day he died, (on that day) the horn will be blown and the people will be dumbfounded! Increase your prayers upon me as your prayers upon me will be presented to me." The people said: "O Messenger of Allah, how will our prayers be presented to you when you have passed away?" He said: "Allah has prohibited the earth from eating the bodies of the Prophets." related by the five, except for at-Tirmizhi.
Ibn al-Qayyim says: "It is preferred to pray for (Allah's blessings on the Prophet during the day and night of Jumu'ah as the Prophet said: 'Make many prayers upon me during the day of Friday and the night of Friday.' The Messenger of Allah is the leader of mankind, and Jumu'ah is the best of the days of the week. Prayers upon him during that day are a privilege [he deserves] which belongs to no other. This act also has another wisdom to it and that is that all of the good that has passed onto this [Muslim] ummah, in this life and the hereafter, has passed through him. Allah has gathered the good of this life and the next life for Muslims, and the greatest honor and success will be granted to them on Friday. On that day, they will be granted their houses and palaces in paradise and that is the day they will be given more when they enter paradise. It is a day of celebration for them in this life. It is also a day in which Allah fulfills their needs and answers their prayers and requests in this world. They are aware of all of that and are able to attain it because of the Prophet and it is through him [that they received these teachings]; therefore, in gratitude and appreciation for the great blessings we received through him, we should make many prayers upon him during the day and night of Jumu 'ah."
It is preferred to recite surah al-Kahf during the day or night of Jumu'ah.
Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever recites Surah al-Kahf on Jumu'ah will have illumination from the light from one Jumu'ah to the next." related by an-Nasa'i, al-Baihaqi, and alHakim.
Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever recites Surah al-Kahf on Jumu'ah will be blessed with a light that will rise from underneath his feet to the peak of the sky. This will be a light for him on the Day of Resurrection, and he will be forgiven for what is between the Jumu'ah [and the next] Jumu'ah." This is related by Ibn Mardwwiyah with a faultless chain.
It is preferred for anyone - man or woman, an elderly or young person, a traveler or a resident - who desires to attend the salatul Jumu'ah or any gathering of the people, to cleanse and to wear best attire. One should perform ghusl, put on one's finest clothing, apply perfume, and to brush one's teeth. The following hadith are recorded on this matter:
Abu Sa'id reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Every Muslim should have a ghusl on Friday and wear his best clothing, and if he has perfume, he should use it." related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim.
Ibn Salam reports that he heard the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam say, while he was upon the pulpit on Friday: "It would do no [harm] to anyone if he were to buy two gowns for Friday other than his work clothes." related by Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah.
Salman al-Farsi reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "A man who performs ghusl on Friday, purifies [himself] what he can and uses dye [for his hair] or perfumes himself in his house, goes to the mosque, and does not cause separation between two people [who are already seated], prays what Allah has prescribed for him, and then listens quietly while the imam speaks, all his sins between that Friday and the next Friday will be forgiven." related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari
Ahmad records, with a sahih chain, that the Prophet said: "It is obligatory upon every Muslim to perform ghusl, apply purfume and use the miswak on Jumu'ah.
Abu Hurairah reports that one Friday the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "O gathering of Muslims, Allah has made this day an Eid for you, so make ghusl and use the miswak." related by at-Tabarani with a chain whose narrators are trustworthy.
Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever makes ghusl on Jumu'ah like the ghusl one makes due to sexual defilement, and then goes to the mosque, it will be as if he had sacrificed a camel. If he goes during the second hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed a cow. If he goes during the third hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed a horned lamb. If he goes during the fourth hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed a hen. And if he goes during the fifth hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed (something like) an egg. When the imam comes, the angels will be present to listen to the remembrance. " related by the group, save Ibn Majah.
Ash-Shaf'i and a number of scholars are of the opinion that the "hours" refer to the hours of the day; therefore, it is preferred for the people to start attending the mosque right after dawn. Malik is of the opinion that it refers to portions of the hour before the sun passes its meridian and afterward. Some hold that it refers to portions of the hour before the sun passes its meridian. Ibn Rushd says: "That is the most apparent meaning as going [to the mosque] after the sun passes the meridian is obligatory."
Abdullah ibn Busr says: "A man came and he was stepping over the necks of the people while the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam was delivering khutbah of Jumu'ah. He said to him: 'Sit down. You have harmed the people and have come late."' related by Abu Dawud,
This ruling does not apply to the imam or one who finds an opening and cannot reach it, save by going over the people. If one wants to return to his place after leaving it due to some necessity, he may do so on the condition that he does not harm the people
It is a sunnah to offer supererogatory prayers before al-Jumu'ah until the imam arrives. After the imam's arrival, one should no longer offer any salah, save for the prayer of greeting the mosque (tahayyatul masjid) which may be performed during the khutbah
Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever makes ghusl on the day of Jumu'ah and then goes to the mosque and prays what has been prescribed for him, and remains quiet while the imam delivers the khutbah, and then prays with the imam, he will be forgiven for what is between that Jumu'ah and the next and an additional three days." related by Muslim.
Jabir reports that a man came to the mosque on Jumu'ah while the Prophet was delivering the khutbah. The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam inquired of him: "Did you pray(tahiyat almasjid)?" The man replied: "No!" He told him: "Pray two rak'at." related by the group. In one narration it states: "If one of you comes to the mosque on the day of Jumu'ah and the imam is delivering the khutbah, he should pray two rak'at and make them quick."  related by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Dawud. In another narration, it is stated: "If one of you comes to the mosque on the day of Jumu'ah and the imam has already arrived, he should offer two rak'at." related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
It is preferred for one who is in the mosque to change place if he feels sleepy. The movement may remove some of his drowsiness and help wake him up. This rule is true for Fridays and any other day.
Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "If one of you becomes sleepy while he is in the mosque, he should move from his place to another place." related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, al-Baihaqi, and at-Tirmizhi who calls it hasan sahih.
The scholars are in agreement that salatul Jumu'ah is an individual obligation and it is two rak'at. Allah says in the Qur'an: "O you who believe, when the call for the salah of Jumu'ah is proclaimed, hasten unto the remembrance of Allah, and leave off business (and trading). That is best for you if you know."
The obligatory nature of salatul Jumu'ah is also obvious from the hadith recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "We are the last [of the people to come] but the first on the day of resurrection. They received their books before us and we got ours after them. This day was obligatory upon them, but they differed concerning it, and Allah guided us to it. The people, therefore, follow us: the Jews tomorrow and the Christians the day after tomorrow."
Ibn Mas'ud reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam noticed some people staying away from al-Jumu'ah and said: "I had the notion to order someone to lead the people in prayer, and then to go and burn the houses of those who stayed away from al-Jumu'ah." related by Ahmad and Muslim.
Abu Hurairah and Ibn 'Umar report that they heard the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam say: "Those who are not attending the Friday salah should change their ways; otherwise, Allah, the Exalted, will seal their hearts and they will be reckoned the heedless." related by Muslim, and by Ahmad and an-Nasa'i from ibn 'Umar and ibn 'Abbas.
Abu al-Ja'd ad-Damari reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever misses three Friday prayers in a row out of negligence will have a seal put over his heart by Allah." related by the five, and Ahmad and Ibn Majah have something similar from Jabir, while Ibn as-Sakin has graded it to be sahih.
Salatul Jumu'ah is an obligation upon every free, adult, sane, resident male Muslim who has the ability to attend the salah and does not have a valid excuse to miss it. Salatul Jumu'ah, however, is not obligatory on the following:
-1- Women and children. Concerning this category there is no difference of opinion.
-2- The person who is ill and faces hardship if he goes to the mosque, or who fears that his illness will be increased by going to the mosque, or whose recovery will be delayed. This also includes the person who is nursing a very ill person if, especially, the ill person cannot manage in the absence of the nursing person.
-3- For the traveler, even if he is staying at a certain place during the time of the beginning of salatul Jumu'ah, it is not obligatory. This is based on the fact that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam traveled and did not perform the salatul Jumu'ah but only prayed the zuhr and 'asr together during the time of the zuhr prayers. The caliphs after him and others also acted in a similar manner.
-4- Fear or Environmental restraints like rain, mud, extreme cold, and so on. Ibn 'Abbas said to the mu'azhzhin on a rainy day: "When you say 'I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah,' do not say 'Come to the prayer,' but say 'Pray in your houses."' The people objected to that and he told them: "One better than me did so [the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam]. Al-Jumu'ah is an obligation but I dislike that you should go out walking in the mud and slush, all of these people are not obliged to pray the Friday salah although they are obliged to pray the zuhr
The Time of the Salatul Jumu'ah
The majority of the companions and successors were of the opinion that the time of al-Jumu'ah is the same as that of the zuhr. How ever there are some companions said: we prayed al-Jumu'ah with Abu Bakr, and his khutbah and salah were before noon. So the jumu'ah sermon and prayer can be before or after noon according to many hadeeths
There is no dispute among the scholars that a congregation is a necessary condition for the validity of al-Jumu'ah. This is based on the hadith of Tariq ibn Shihab who reports that the Prophet said: "Al-Jumu 'ah is an obligation ( wajib) upon every Muslim in the community." However, the scholars do differ on how many people are required for al-Jumu'ah. The strongest opinion is that salatul Jumu'ah is valid if there are two or more people present since the Prophet is reported to have said: "Two or more constitute a congregation."
It is valid to perform the Jumu'ah salah in any country, city, mosque, any building in a city, or in any space in a city as it also is valid to have it performed in more than one place. 'Umar wrote the following to the people of Bahrain: "Offer the Jumu'ah salah wherever you may be." related by Ibn abi Shaibah. Ahmad holds its chain to be good.
The majority of the people of knowledge are of the opinion that khutbahtul Jumu'ah is obligatory and they support this by the confirmed hadith which state that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam always made the khutbah with the Jumu'ah. In their support they also quote the saying of the Prophet: "Pray as you see me pray," and the Qur'anic verse: "O you who believe, when the call is proclaimed for salatul jumu'ah, hasten unto the remembrance of Allah." This verse contains an order to hasten unto the remembrance, which implies it is obligatory, and (the scholars) interpret the remembrance of Allah to include the khutbatul Jumu'ah.
The imam should say Assalamu Alaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh to people when he comes upon the pulpit, followed by the athaan which is to be made when he sits. The imam should face the people during the athaan.
As-Sa'ib ibn Yazid informs: "The first athaan to salah made on the day of Jumu'ah was made when the imam sat upon the pulpit during the time of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam, Abu Bakr, and 'Umar. Then, during the time of 'Uthman, since there were many people, he instituted a third athaan outside the mosque. The Prophet only had one mu'athin ." This is related by alBukhari, an-Nasa'i, and Abu Dawud. In another narration, it is stated: "During the time of 'Uthman, there were many people, so 'Uthman ordered the people to make a third call to salah on the day of Jumu'ah, outside of the mosque, and that practice has continued."
Ahmad and an-Nasa'i record: "Bilal would make the athaan to salah when the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam sat upon the pulpit, and he would make the iqaamah when the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam came down from the pulpit."
It is preferred that the Friday khutbah include praises of Allah, the Exalted, prayers upon the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam, admonitions, and Qur'anic recitations.
Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wassallam said: "Every speech that does not begin with the praises of Allah is defective." This is related by Abu Dawud.
In another version, it is stated: "The Friday khutbah that does not contain the testimony ["There is no God except Allah, and Muhammad is His Messenger] is like the defective hand." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and at-Tirmizhi.
Ibn Mas'ud reports that the Prophet would say in his opening testimony: "All praise be to Allah, we seek His aid and we seek His forgiveness and we seek refuge in Allah from the evil of our souls. Whomever Allah guides, no one will be able to mislead him. Whoever He leaves astray will have no guidance for him. And I testify that there is no God except Allah and that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger whom He sent with the truth and as a Warner before the Hour. Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger will be guided aright, and whoever disobeys them will only harm his own self and he will not harm Allah, the Exalted, at all."
Jabir ibn Samurah says: "The Messenger of Allah would deliver his khutbah standing, would sit in between the two khutbahs, would recite some verses, and would remind the people [about Allah]." related by the group, save al-Bukhari and at-Tirmizhi.
The obligatory nature of salatul Jumu'ah is also obvious from the hadith recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said: "We are the last [of the people to come] but the first on the day of resurrection. They received their books before us and we got ours after them. This day was obligatory upon them, but they differed concerning it, and Allah guided us. The people, therefore, follow us: the Jews tomorrow and the Christians the day after tomorrow."
Jabir also related that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would not make his admonitions on Friday too long, but give a very short khutbah. related by Abu Dawud.
Umm Hisham bint Harithah ibn an-Nu'man says: "I learnt [Surah] Qaf of the Glorious Qur'an from the Prophet for he recited it upon the pulpit every Friday when he addressed the people." related by Ahmad, Muslim, an-Nasa' i, and Abu Dawud .
It is the admonitory aspect of the Friday khutbah which the hadith emphasise, and if a khatib makes an admonition, he fulfills the purpose of shari'ah; if he precedes his khutbah with praises of Allah and prayers upon the Prophet and during his admonitions he uses Qur'anic verses, then he does it in a complete and satisfactory manner."
It is proper for the imam to stand for the two khutbas and to sit for a short while in between them.
Ibn 'Umar said: "When the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would deliver the Khutbatul Jumu'ah, he did so standing, and then he would sit, and then he would stand [again, for the second khutbah] as the people do today." related by the group.
Jabir ibn-Samura said: "The Prophet would deliver the khutbah while standing, and then he would sit, and then he would stand and speak again. Whoever says that he gave the khutbah while sitting has lied. Verily, I prayed with him more than two thousand prayers [including the five daily prayers]." related by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Dawud.
Ammar ibn Yasir reports that he heard the Messenger of Allah say: "Prolonging salah and shortening one's khutbah is a sign of one's understanding of the religion. So, prolong the prayer and shorten the khutbah." related by Ahmad and Muslim.
Jabir ibn Samurah says: "The Prophet's salah was of a moderate length and so was his khutbah." related by the group, save al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud.
'Abdullah ibn abi Aufa reports: "The salah of the Messenger of Allah was long and his khutba.i was short." related by an-Nasa'i with a sahih chain.
The khutbah to be in an eloquent and proper language of the people, and it should be an organized speech that the people can understand. It should not be a speech, which is over the heads of the people, nor should it be shallow or contain foul language as that would defeat its purpose. Its words should be chosen carefully to make them attractive and meaningful."
Giving his views on the subject, Ibn al-Qayyim says: "The khutbah of the Prophet reinforced the fundamental articles of faith, like belief in Allah, the Exalted, His angels, His books, His messengers, and the meeting with Him. He would mention the paradise and the hellfire and what Allah, the Exalted, has promised to His devoted servants and the people who obey Him and what Allah has promised to His enemies and the miscreant. While listening to his khutbah, the hearts would be filled with belief in Allah, His oneness, and His majesty. His khutbahs were not like speeches of those who speak only of matters of concern of common folk, lamenting earthly life and frightening people of the approaching death. Such speeches cannot inspire faith in Allah or strengthen belief in His oneness or move people by allusion to His mighty works in history, nor can they kindle in hearts intense love for Allah, making the listeners look forward eagerly to the time they will meet Him! The people who hear such speeches gain no benefit at all, except that they will die and that their wealth will be distributed and their bodies will be turned to dust. Woe to such poets, what sort of faith is fostered by such sermons, and what sort of tawheed do they teach or knowledge disseminate? If we study the khutbahs of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam and his companions, we find them full with perspicuous guidance, tawheed, attributes of Allah, explaining the basic articles of the faith
The khutbah must be in the language of the country so Muslims would understand their religion, and not necessary to be in Arabic language, Abu Hurairah reports: "The Prophet was delivering a khutbah and al-Hassan and al-Hussain [his grandsons] came and they were wearing two red shirts and they were tripping while walking. The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam  came down from the pulpit and picked them up and placed them in front of himself, and then he said: 'Allah and His Messenger have told the truth. Verily, your wealth and children are a trial. I looked to these two children walking and tripping, and I could not be patient, so I cut off my khutbah and went to pick them up."' related by the five.
Sometimes The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam  would descend from the pulpit due to some need and then return and complete his khutbah, as he did when he picked up al-Hassan and al-Hussain. He took them and then returned with them to the pulpit. Sometimes he would interrupt his khutbah to say things to certain people, [e.g.,] 'Sit, so and so,' 'Pray, so and so.' [Sometimes] he ordered them to take care of certain things during his khutbah."
 It is forbidden to speak during the khutbah
The majority of the scholars are of the opinion that it is obligatory to be silent during the khutbah, and one is not to indulge in conversation during the khutbah, not even if it is to order one to do some good or to stop some evil, and this rule applies whether or not the person sitting in the mosque can actually hear the khutbah.
Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever speaks in Jumu'ah while the imam is delivering the khutbah is like a donkey who is carrying books, and for those who tell him to be quiet, there is no [reward] for the Jumu'ah." related by Ahmad, ibn abi-Shaibah, al-Bazzar, and at-Tabarani. Ibn Hajar said in Bulugh alMaram: "There is no fault in its chain."
Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet said: "If, during the Jumu'ah while the imam is delivering khutbah, you tell your companion to be quiet, then you have spoken needlessly." This is related by the group, save Ibn Majah.
Abu ad-Darda' says: "The Prophet was upon the pulpit and was addressing the people and he recited a verse, and next to me was Ubayy ibn-Ka'b and I asked him: When was that verse revealed?' He refused to talk to me until the Messenger of Allah came down from the pulpit and then he said to me: 'You have nothing from your Jumu'ah, except your useless talk.' When the Prophet had finished, I went to him and informed him of what had happened, and he said: 'Ubayy has told the truth. If you hear your imam speaking, be quiet until he is finished.''' related by Ahmad and at-Tabarani.
Jumu'ah Prayer is two rakah, it replaces zuhor prayer for Friday,Most of the people of knowledge are of the opinion that if a person catches only one rak'ah of al-Jumu'ah, then that rak'ah will be valid and the person need only make up the one rak'ah that he misses.
Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever catches only one rak'ah of the salah and then adds to it the other one, his prayer will be complete." related by an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah,
Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever catches one rak'ah of the prayer has indeed caught the whole prayer." This is related by the group.
Whoever catches less than one rak'ah of the salah has not caught the Jumu'ah prayer and he is to pray four rak'at of the zuhr salah according to the majority of the scholars.
Ibn Mas'ud says: "Whoever catches one rak'ah from al-Jumu'ah is only to add another one to it. Whoever misses both rak'at is to pray four rak'at." This is related by at-Tabarani with a good chain.
It is a sunnah to pray four rak'at or two rak'at after al-Jumu'ah: Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever is to pray after the Jumu'ah should pray four rak'at." related by Muslim, Abu Dawud, and at-Tirmizhi.
Ibn 'Umar says: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would pray two rak'at in his house on the day of Jumu'ah." related by the group.
Ibn al-Qayyim says: "After the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam finished the Jumu'ah, he would enter his house and pray two rak'at, and he ordered those who prayed the Jumu'ah to pray four rak'at after it.
Ibn Taimiyyah says: 'When he prayed in the mosque, he would pray four [rak'at], and when he prayed in his house, he would pray two rak'at.' I say: this is what the hadith is pointing to. Abu Dawud records from ibn 'Umar that when he prayed in the mosque, he would pray four rak'at, and when he prayed in his house, he would pray two rak'at.
Concerning any sunnah prayer before the Friday salah, Ibn Taimiyyah writes: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam never offered any salah after the azhan and before the Friday salah, and no one has ever related such an act from him. During the Prophet's time, there was only one azhan and that was made when the Prophet sat upon the pulpit. Bilal would make the azhan and then the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would give the two khutbahs. Next, Bilal would make the iqamah and the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would lead the people in salah. It is not possible that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would have made a salah after the azhan nor anyone else among the Muslims who prayed with the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam could have done so. And we have no evidence to show that the Prophet, sallallahu alehi wasallam, prayed in his house before going out to the mosque on Friday. He did not specify any time for any salah before the Friday salah. What he said was meant to exhort those going early to the mosque on Friday to engage themselves in prayer. He said: 'Whoever goes out early and walks and does not ride to the mosque and prays what has been prescribed [by Allah] for him...' That has been related from the Prophet's companions. When they would reach the mosque on Friday, they would pray whatever amount was easy for them. Some of them prayed ten rak'at and some prayed twelve and some only eight and others less than that. For this reason most of the scholars are of the opinion that there is no sunnah prayer with a specified number of rak'ah or time, before aljumu'ah prayer, so, there is no sunnah prayer before jumu'ah but one may pray nafil prayer as many as he wants
If the day of Eid occurs on Al-Jumu'ah day, then salatul Jumu'ah is no longer an obligation upon those who performed the salatul Eid.
Zaid ibn Arqam says: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam prayed salat Al-Eid and then he gave an exemption concerning the Jumu'ah prayer, saying: 'Whoever wishes to pray it may pray it.'" related by the five and al-Hakim. Ibn Khuzaimah calls it sahih.
Abu Hurairah reports that the prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Two festivals have occurred together on this day of yours. For whosoever desires, this will suffice for his salatul Jumu'ah, but we are going to perform salatul Jumu'ah." related by Abu Dawud.
It is preferred for the imam to perform the Jumu'ah so anyone who wishes to perform it may do so as well as those who were not able to attend the Eid prayer. The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "We are going to perform the salatul Jumu'ah."
So the one who prayed Eid and does not want to pray jumu'ah prayer, must pray zuhr.
 
With the compliments of www.worldreminder.com
Collected and Prepared

by

Hamadi Al-Aslani

Manager of Editing and Translation

  Jeddah Dawah Center